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小聊设计思维的发展

公司半年会后到处都在讲设计思维,各处都在冲刺。我们领导人还是很跟得上潮流的嘛。因在哈佛商业评论和福布斯的报道后“设计思维”在商业中被广泛关注和实践起来。前几年美国顶级商学院已将设计思维(design thinking)纳入课程体系,斯坦福大学成立D.School等。在John Maeda《科技中的设计》年报告,很多大公司和独角兽的创始人或高层里都有设计师在里头,像IBM和麦肯锡前段时间宣布了其最高级职业中对设计师的任命。从04年到2016年有超过50家知名设计公司被收购,其中15,16年有26家。可见设计在商业的重视,及设计思维的火热。虽然很火,可能很多人以为他像VR、大数据、共享自行车等刚刚兴起的。实际上,“设计思维”(实际也是设计)做为一种方法已经走过了一段不短的进化历史了。何不停一下,了解一下前身和近况呢。做完桌面研究后就花了点时间整理了该文,把从工业时代到现在影响设计思维的人物做个小介绍,因涉及内容实在是太多了,被放上来的,纯粹是看哪些人熟悉,哪些人记录的详细些,不对的地方请指正,感谢伟大的互联网,感谢为设计思维付诸实践的“先烈”们。

作者:Thomas Lockwood, University of Westminster PhD, Integrated design Management.

我们的产品研发一直秉承敏捷迭代的理念,可持续的敏捷、有积累的迭代。轻量级、快速、小步上台阶的方式。

1960前 包豪斯的设计思想,人文与奢侈,国际现代主义和大众文化

经历工业革命,大萧条和二战后的工业设计。 兼顾效率生产和美学为主的时代。

Design Thinking 概览

设计思维本质上是以用户为中心,强调观察,协作,快速学习,视觉化点子,快速概念原型,兼商业分析,最终影响创新和商业策略的创新过程。他的目的是把消费者,设计师和商业人士整合到产品、服务或商业的设计过程上。它是想像未来状态和把产品,服务和体验带到市场上的工具。设计思维术语上来看像是应用设计师的敏感和方法解决问题,不管问题是什么样的。它不能替代专业设计师或艺术和手艺设计,但它是启发创新的一种方法。

设计思维的几个关键原则:

1.基于现场调研深入理解消费者

2.与用户和复合型团队联合协作,寻找突破性创新、显著提升和增加新价值上

3.通过视觉化,亲手体验和快速原型来加速学习,快速获得用户反馈。目标是通过快速多次的失败来获得创新。

4.原型化,可以是概念草图,粗糙的物理模块,或故事角色板,或一组场景故事等

5.并行进行商业分析,是很重要的一点。

“Design thinking is a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” —Tim Brown, president and CEO

彼得·贝伦斯(Peter Behrens)

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业设计的先驱,第一位现代艺术设计师,是一代人的宗师,包括最著名的现代主义建筑师 密斯·范德罗(坚持”少即是多“的建筑哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之父),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三人都在他的工作室为他工作过。他是第一个尝试综合工艺和技术结合的设计师。

Design Thinking / Design management / Design Leadership / Design strategy 的区别

作者的观点是, 设计思维是一种帮助发现非显性的需求或机会,帮助创建新的解决方案的方法。设计管理偏重在管理和领导设计组织,过程和设计产出物(产品、服务、沟通、环境和交互)。设计领导和设计策略更多考虑的是设计思维和设计管理的效率及产出物上。

设计思维是一种以人为本的创新方法,通过设计师将人的需要、技术可行性和商业需求结合。

包豪斯:全新设计策略的教育

1919年格罗皮乌斯在德国创建包豪斯,是第一所将贝伦斯的想法应用到高等教学中。密斯是最后一届校长。1930年在纳粹的压力下关闭,学校的设计师们都迁往美国,二战后包豪斯的设计哲学(平衡艺术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国的设计思想,随着这些人在美国各处落脚,设计的思想运动也在全美到处开花。

设计思维在商业、品牌,服务设计,客户体验上

创新驱动商业的差异,设计驱动创新。

但是我们的问题已远远超越了商业问题,像MIT和哈佛在解决的问题已是系统层面的问题,像我们的食物供给系统,儿童肥胖,急救健康等,作为一个设计师和设计思考者,有这样的机会去解决这样的问题是多么的高兴,通过自己能影响和改变社会问题。

团队协同需要每个人在某种程度上都要成为T型人,也就是要有一定的广度和深度,这样才能互相理解对方的思维、思路。多元化的团队、开放具创造性的环境、通过迭代实现创新。

设计协作与咨询在美国发展起步

1920-1930期间和包豪斯一样有影响的美国工业和图形设计师,像 Harley Earl, Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald Desky(都是在美国出生的),这些设计师把设计协作与咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的教育一起影响着美国的图像和工业设计。

  • 哈利·厄尔 Harley Earl,首位在设计汽车上使用市场细分策略的设计师

    Chevrolet Corvette

  • 雷蒙德·洛威 Raymond Loewy,设计咨询升级现有技术产品
    在不改变任何技术下,通过整合美学、材料、制造大大改变那个年代丑陋的家电产品,第一位登上《时代》的设计师。他的设计不同于包豪斯的“形式追随功能”(Form Follows Function),较偏向市场主义的“形式追随市场”,他曾说过:“当商品在相同的价格和功能下竞争,设计就是唯一的差别”。他建立当时最大的设计公司,接授设计委托,并以“洛威设计”的名义发表,“洛威设计”在那个年代是一种优良设计的象征、销售保障的代名词,这一作法在今日也能见于一些设计公司。

    洛威的“阿汎提”设计草图,1963年

  • 亨利·德雷福斯 Henry Dreyfuss,把人因因素做为产品的核心设计
    在其1955年的发表的《Designing for People》一书中阐述了以人为本的设计理念,以人为中心的设计最早实践者和奠基者。

    Designing for People 书中节选

  • 保罗·兰德 Paul Rand,将品牌识别与国际主义相结合
    IBM,ABC,FEEDX,西屋、NeXT等视觉系统的设计,将包豪斯倡导的现代艺术及设计思想和美学原则,应用到商业服务设计中。

    IBM

ABC

“Design is relationship. Design is a relationship between form and content.”

  • 乔治·尼尔森和查里斯夫妇,为家庭和办公系统设计
    1945年乔治·尼尔森在Herman Miller做设计总监时就把设计思维带进了家具概念设计中,设计师不在单干而是与一群的设计师从系统环境的角度来看产品设计。在这一理念和策略下查里斯和雷·埃蒙斯设计了Eames Loung Chair。Charles经常鼓励工作人员多做试验,他曾说他的梦想就是“和那些致力于毫无用处的项目的人一起工作。这样会碰撞出新思想的火花。”

    Eames Loung Chair

Chapter 1 Notes on the Evolution of Design Thinking: A Work in Progress

进化中的设计思维

by Craig M. Vogel, Director of Center for Design Research and Innovation, College of Design Architecture, Art and Planning, University of Cincinnati

保持开放的心态,向他人学习不同的技术。Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish.

1960-1980 建立设计实践,设计运动集中

设计实践在短短的20年时间跨度里,不仅重新定义了设计是什么,更是说明了它可以用来做什么。这个相对短但非常密集的阶段在全球范围内诞生了两种截然不同的设计方法。
60年代的美国=设计科学
60年代的美国,工业设计和产品设计取得的第一小步的进步是专业上从工程和科学区分出来。但他们并没有走得更远,工业设计还是主要基于可量化,可度量的问题与事件。设计工作室通常在大学实验室或工厂,不像现在的工作室在城镇里有像咖啡店一样的装修。
代表有像MIT的Fuller建立多学科的精英团队进行创新。

60年代斯堪的纳维亚=协同设计
在同一期,Fuller不同的斯堪的纳维亚设计,通过邀请大学参与设计讨论。这些设计师扮演促进者或指导者角色,每个人和专家到工人或居民共同设计他们想要使用的产品或服务。开发了很多高度创新的项目,像Utopia,NJMF,DEMOkratiske Stryringssystemer,DEMOS等帮助工人,工会,工作场所,政府部门应对不断变化的环境。
这种工作方式直接适用于我们现在提的服务设计,这种工作方式严重依赖设计师的边做边设计和引导,使用工具像"Mock-up envisionment(模拟设想)",未来圈,组织游戏,合作原型,人种学领域研究,社会调查等产生新想法或改善现有。高度参与 和佚代,集体讨论。
到20世纪80年代中期,因为电脑的普及与HCI(人机交互)的发展,斯堪的纳维亚的合作设计终于横跨大西洋来到美国,被广泛地称为参与式设计。

PETER BEHRENS: CORPORATE IDENTITY AND BRAND DIFFERENTIATION

Peter Behrens (14 April 1868 – 27 February 1940) was a German architect and designer. He was important for the modernist movement, and several of the movement's leading names (including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius) worked for him in earlier stages of their careers. He was one of the first designers who tried to synthesize the two polar positions of technology and craft.

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业设计的先驱,第一位现代艺术设计师,是一代人的宗师,包括最著名的现代主义建筑师 密斯·范德罗(坚持”少即是多“的建筑哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之父),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三人都在他的工作室为他工作过。他是第一个尝试综合工艺和技术结合的设计师。

“The big thing about design thinking is it allows people to build on the ideas of others. Instead of just having that one thread, you think about it, I come up with an idea, and then somebody from somewhere else says, ‘Oh that makes me think we should do this and then we could do that.’ And then you get to a place that you just can't get to in one mind.” ---David Kelley, founder of IDEO.

Buckminister Fuller 的科学设计

1956年起在MIT 创意工程实验室教授CADS(Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Science)。他的实验室应用科学方法产生设计。Fuller的方法建立在工程师、工业设计师、材料专家、化学专家的精英团队的基础上进行创新。代表作品有:Geodesic Domestic, the Dymaxion car, Triton city, the “Fly’s Eye” Dome等。

the Dymaxion car

“设计师是综合了艺术家,发明家,机械师,经济学者和策略于一身。”

The BAUHAUS: A NEW DESIGN STRATEGY FOR EDUCATION

包豪斯:全新设计策略的教育

1919年格罗皮乌斯在德创建包豪斯,是第一所将贝伦斯的想法应用到高等教学中。密斯是最后一届校长。1930年在纳粹的压力下关闭,学校的设计师们都迁往美国,二战后包豪斯的设计哲学(平衡艺术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国的设计思想,随着这些人在美国各处落脚,设计的思想运动也在全美到处开花。

http://blog.ted.com/david-kelley-of-ideo-talks-design-thinking-on-60-minutes/
http://www.cbsnews.com/videos/how-to-design-breakthrough-inventions-50138327/

Scandinavian 协同设计

50年代以简单、少、功能性,具有包容性和民主性为特点的完全有别于其它设计方法的Scandinavian设计运动,在北欧国家一直沿系到今天。受语言的障碍使得这一运动没有记录并传播更广。60年代的Scandinavian协同设计在电脑的人机交互和服务设计上有许多的发展。

Chairs at the Danish Design Center, Denmark

CORPORATE AND CONSULTING DESIGN IN THE UNITED STATES,设计协作与咨询在美国的发展

1920-1930期间和包豪斯一样有影响的美国工业和图形设计师,像 Harley Earl, Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald Desky(都是在美国出生的),这些设计师把设计协作与咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的教育上联合影响着美国的图像和工业设计。

Harley Earl and General Motors: Market Segmentation in the Auto Industry

Harley Earl 美国首位在设计汽车上使用市场细分策略,1927-1959

Raymond Loewy, Design Consultant: Updating Existing Technology

Loewy merged aesthetics, materials, and manufacturing to transform the loud and ugly electric refrigerator of the 1920s into a modern kichen appliance. The consumer response was immediate. In one year, sales of Sears's Cold Spot increased from 65,000 to 250,000 units - without any significant change in core technology.

Henry Dreyfuss: Integrating Human Factors as a Core Component of Product Design

Dreyfuss developed a more scientific approach to human factors and integrated that perspective with product aesthetics. "to develop individuals who will be competent to change their environment to greater conformity with moral ideals." This became the basis for Dreyfuss's human-centered approach. He expressed those ideas in his 1955 book, Designing for people. Dreyfuss was a more articulate practitioner of human-centered design than was Loewy.

Paul Rand and Elliot Noyes: Corporate Identity and the International Movement

Noyes was educated as an architect at Harvard and studied under Gropius and Bauhaus furniture designer Marcel Breuer. Rand, for his part, was heavily influenced by what had come to be called the Swiss Style of graphic design and helped to build a relationship between Switzerland's Basel school of Design and Yale University.

One of the first strategic design decisions Rand and Noyes conceived for international Business Machines was to reduce its long and awkward name to IBM. Modern identities, they believed, needed to be easy to read and pronounce in all applications and all languages. The new logo and identity system was integrated with an approach to curtain wall architecture that was applied to the new buildings at IBM, as well as to the outer panel construction design of mainframe computer systems.

George Nelson and Charles and Ray Eames: System Design for Home and Work

When George Nelson was appointed design director for Herman Miller in 1945, he brought a new level of design thinking to the concept of furniture design for the home and office.

Modern office buildings were being designed using a systematic approach, and Nelson saw the interior office landscape similarly-as a potential opportunity for the application of modular design design systems. Each individual piece of furniture would act as one in a series of flexible parts with multiple configurations that would fit the modern open office that had come into being in the 1950s and '60s.

The husband-and-wife team of Charles and Ray Eames contributed some of their most important designs under this new strategy. Both of them studied at Michigan's Cranbrook Academy of Art, and both were influenced by Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. The Eames lounge chair and airport seating solution, for Herman Miller, are two of the most influential design projects of the twentieth century.

The ideas and work of Charles and Ray Eames represent a unique and vital branch of design thinking. Their work is as powerful and influential as that of Frank Lloyd Wright; yet they are virtually unknown outside of the fields of design and architecture.

innovation.png

Herbert A. Simon

西蒙在1969出版的人造科学中,给设计一个新的分类和界限。西蒙认为一切的设计应被视为人造品,是自然的对立面。

“The engineer, and more generally the designer, is concerned with how things ought to be — how they ought to be in order to attain goals, and to function.”

“Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones.”

FROM PRODUCT TO ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE

In 1975 Bill Hannon founded the Design Management Institute(DMI) in Boston, Massachusetts. This was the first professional organization in the world dedicated to improving the role of design in business, and helped to define design management as a new practice.

In 1976 Victor Papanek published his Design for the Real World, asking designers to see the potential of design thinking for social and environmental responsibility. He accused designers of catering to the small percentage of consumers who have everything, while ignoring those in lower income levels and emerging economies, as well as people with disabilities.

In 1982, Ralph Caplan wrote in By design that Mahatma Gandhi's concept of nonviolent protest was one of the most effective design solutions in history.

The Nobel laureate Herb Simon stated that there are really two types of science. One concerns the world humans are responsible for producing(the science of the artificial), and the other concerns the world in which humans evolved(the science of the natural).

Science, engineering, and technology factor shifts have occurred in each decade in the last century, opening new opportunities for designers. The key ingredient for business success is the presence of both an innovative CEO who sees design as an investment, not a cost, and a strategic design director or consultant who can place the value of the design at the center of the company. If either one leaves, the value of design is jeopardized. 把设计看成是投资在,是不是成本;设计策略是公司的中心;这两点缺一不可才可能在今天及未来成为创新驱动的公司。

DT.Problemm&Solution.jpg

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